Renal cell carcinoma: Links and risks

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

78 Scopus citations


This review provides an overview of the incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and a summary of the most commonly associated risk factors. A literature review was performed with a focus on recent studies with a high level of evidence (large prospective cohort studies and meta-analyses). The incidence rate of RCC varies globally, with the rate rising rapidly in more developed regions, demonstrating the effects of increased use of diagnostic imaging and prevalence of modifiable risk factors. Based on the current evidence, cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension are the most well-established risk factors for sporadic RCC worldwide. Acquired cystic kidney disease is also a significant risk factor, specifically in dialysis patients. There is increasing evidence for an inverse association between RCC risk and moderate alcohol consumption. Certain analgesics and occupational exposure have been linked to an increased risk of RCC, although data are limited. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables may provide a protective effect.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)45-52
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
StatePublished - Mar 7 2016


  • Hypertension
  • Incidence
  • Obesity
  • Renal cell carcinoma
  • Risk factors
  • Smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology


Dive into the research topics of 'Renal cell carcinoma: Links and risks'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this