Resident training in a teaching hospital: How do attendings teach in the real operative environment?

Carly E. Glarner, Katherine E. Law, Amy B. Zelenski, Robert J. McDonald, Jacob A. Greenberg, Eugene F. Foley, Douglas A. Wiegmann, Caprice C. Greenberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Background The study aim was to explore the nature of intraoperative education and its interaction with the environment where surgical education occurs. Methods Video and audio recording captured teaching interactions between colorectal surgeons and general surgery residents during laparoscopic segmental colectomies. Cases and collected data were analyzed for teaching behaviors and workflow disruptions. Flow disruptions (FDs) are considered deviations from natural case progression. Results Across 10 cases (20.4 operative hours), attendings spent 11.2 hours (54.7%) teaching, using directing (M = 250.1), and confirming (M = 236.1) most. FDs occurred 410 times, accounting for 4.4 hours of case time (21.57%). Teaching occurred with FD events for 2.4 hours (22.2%), whereas 77.8% of teaching happened outside FD occurrence. Teaching methods shifted from active to passive during FD events to compensate for patient safety. Conclusions Understanding how FDs impact operative learning will inform faculty development in managing interruptions and improve its integration into resident education.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)141-146
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican Journal of Surgery
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Education behavior
  • Flow disruptions
  • Human factors
  • Surgical education
  • Work system

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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