BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The presence of malformations of cortical development in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia has been reported on previous occasions. We evaluated a sample of adults with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia for the presence of malformations of cortical development, spatial coincidence of malformations of cortical development and AVMs, and the coincidence of brain and pulmonary AVMs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 141 patients 18 years of age or older who were referred to the Augusta University hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia clinic and underwent brain MR imaging between January 19, 2018, and December 3, 2020, were identified. MR imaging examinations were reviewed retrospectively by 2 experienced neuroradiologists, and the presence of malformations of cortical development and AVMs was confirmed by consensus. Demographic and clinical information was collected for each case, including age, sex, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia status by the Curacao Criteria, mutation type, presence of malformations of cortical development, presence of brain AVMs, presence of pulmonary AVMs, and a history of seizures or learning disabilities. RESULTS: Five of 141 (3.5%) patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia had malformations of cortical development. Two of the 5 patients with polymicrogyria also had closed-lip schizencephaly. One of the patients had a porencephalic cavity partially lined with heterotopic GM. The incidence of spatially coincident polymicrogyria and brain AVMs was 40% (2/5 cases). Of the patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and malformations of cortical development, 4/5 (80%) had pulmonary AVMs and 2/5 (40%) had brain AVMs. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, we are the first group to report the presence of schizencephaly in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. The presence of schizencephaly and porencephaly lends support to the hypothesis of regional in utero cerebral hypoxic events as the etiology of malformations of cortical development in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Clinical Neurology