Screening of candidate biomaterials for alveolar augmentation using a critical-size rat calvaria defect model

Cristiano Susin, Jaebum Lee, Tiago Fiorini, Ki Tae Koo, Peter Schüpbach, Patricia D.M. Angst, Amanda Finger Stadler, Ulf M.E. Wikesjö

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Objective: To screen candidate biomaterials intended for alveolar augmentation relative to their potential to enhance local bone formation using a routine critical-size (ø8-mm) rat calvaria defect model. Methods: One hundred and forty male Sprague Dawley outbred rats, age 11–12 weeks, weight 325–375 g, obtained from USDA approved breeder, randomised into 14 groups of 10 animals, each received one of the following treatments: sham-surgery (empty control), Bio-Oss (bovine HA/reference control), or candidate biomaterials including bovine HA, synthetic HA/ß-TCP and calcium phosphate constructs, mineralised/demineralised human bone preparations, a ß-TCP/calcium sulphate and an HA/calcium sulphate putty. A 4-week healing interval was chosen to discern local bone formation using incandescent and polarised light microscopy. Statistical analysis used one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni for pairwise comparisons. Results: Candidate biomaterials all displayed biocompatibility. They exhibited limited, if any, appreciable bioerosion or biodegradation. No statistically significant differences in mean linear defect closure were observed among experimental groups, sham-surgery displaying the highest score (48.1 ± 24.3%). Sham-surgery also showed a significantly greater bone area fraction than all other groups (19.8 ± 13.9%, p <.001). The HA/calcium sulphate putty showed a significantly greater residual biomaterial area fraction than all other groups (61.1 ± 8.5%, p <.01). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this animal model, although biocompatible, none of the tested biomaterials enhanced local bone formation beyond the innate regenerative potential of this craniotomy defect.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)884-893
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Clinical Periodontology
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • bone biomaterials
  • critical-size-defect
  • rat calvaria
  • tissue engineering

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Periodontics


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