Semi-automatic staging system for rectal cancer using spatially-oriented, unwrapped endorectal ultrasound

John R. Warmath, Zhujiang Cao, Philip Bao, Alan J. Herline, Robert L. Galloway

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review


Endorectal ultrasound is currently the gold standard for the staging of rectal cancer; however, the accurate staging of the disease requires extensive training and is difficult, especially for those clinicians who do not see a large number of patients per year. Therefore, there is a need for a semi-automatic staging system to assist the clinicians in the accurate staging of rectal cancer. We believe that the unwrapping of the circular ERUS images captured by a spatially tracked ERUS system is a step in this direction. The steps by which a 2D image can be unwrapped are described thereby allowing the circular layers of the rectal wall to be displayed as flat layers stacked on top of each other. We test the unwrapping process using images from a cylindrical rectal phantom and a human rectum. The process of unwrapping endorectal ultrasound images qualitatively provides good visualization of the layers of the rectal wall and rectal tumors and supports the continual study of this novel staging system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number47
Pages (from-to)425-434
Number of pages10
JournalProgress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE
Issue numberI
StatePublished - Aug 16 2005
Externally publishedYes
EventMedical Imaging 2005 - Visualization, Image-Guided Procedures, and Display - San Diego, CA, United States
Duration: Feb 13 2005Feb 15 2005


  • 3-D Ultrasound
  • Endorectal Ultrasound
  • Freehand Ultrasound
  • Image-Guided Procedures
  • Rectal Cancer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)


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