Serious traumatic brain injury: An evaluation of functional outcomes

M. L. Hawkins, F. D. Lewis, R. S. Medeiros

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


Objectives: Evaluate independent living, productivity, and social outcomes of patients with serious traumatic brain injury (TBI) after inpatient rehabilitation. Methods: Fifty-five adults with serious TBI (Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≤ 3) were admitted to a Level I trauma center and subsequently transferred to a comprehensive inpatient rehabilitation hospital (Walton Rehabilitation Hospital). Functional Independence Measures were obtained at admission (Adm), discharge (D/C), and at 3- (n = 52) and 1-year (n = 51) follow-up. Results: At 1 year, 90% of the patients were living at home. Eight (16%) required full-time supervision, while 41 (82%) were independent of supervision throughout most of the day. Thirteen (25%) patients had returned to work, eight full time and five with reduced responsibility and fewer hours than before injury. Nineteen shared household duties, while eight (16%) had primary responsibility. Fourteen (27%) patients demonstrated socially inappropriate or disruptive behavior at least weekly. Conclusion: Although cognitive skills were diminished for the majority of patients, many achieved a substantial reduction in disability within 18 months after TBI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)257-264
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Trauma - Injury, Infection and Critical Care
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 1996
Externally publishedYes


  • Functional Independence Measure
  • Glasgow Coma Scale
  • Injury Severity Score
  • Outcomes measurement
  • Serious traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine


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