Sex differences (biological distinctions between males and females) present a complex interplay of genetic, developmental, biological, and environmental factors. More and more studies are shedding light on the importance of sex differences in normal physiology and susceptibility to cancer, cardiovascular and renal conditions, and neurodegenerative diseases. This mini-review is devoted to the role of sex dimorphisms in renal function, with a focus on the distinctions between male and female mitochondria. Here, we cover the aspects of renal mitochondrial bioenergetics where sex differences have been reported to date, for instance, biogenesis, reactive oxygen species production, and oxidative stress. Special attention is devoted to the effects of sex hormones, such as estrogen and testosterone, on mitochondrial bioenergetics in the kidney in physiology and pathophysiology.
- Sex differences
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