Sex hormones, aging and cardiometabolic syndrome

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

49 Scopus citations


It is well documented that the metabolic syndrome predisposes patients to increased cardiovascular risk. Emerging data indicates that cardiovascular risk conferred by metabolic syndrome is highly dependent on sex and sex hormone status throughout the lifetime. Both male and female sex hormones, as well as sex chromosomes themselves, contribute to the development of obesity and intervene in the control of insulin homeostasis and blood pressure. Furthermore, men and women develop age-associated cardiometabolic risk in a sex-specific fashion in association with changes in these sex hormonal levels. Therefore, the current notion of the metabolic syndrome as a sex-independent diagnosis is antiquated, and novel studies and clinical trials utilizing these known sex differences in the development of metabolic dysregulation and cardiometabolic risk are warranted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number30
JournalBiology of Sex Differences
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 1 2019


  • Aging
  • Diabetes
  • Endothelial function
  • Hypertension
  • Obesity
  • Sex differences
  • Sex hormones

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gender Studies
  • Endocrinology


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