Single-bottle adhesives behave as permeable membranes after polymerization. I. In vivo evidence

F. R. Tay, R. Frankenberger, I. Krejci, S. Bouillaguet, D. H. Pashley, R. M. Carvalho, C. N.S. Lai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

168 Scopus citations


Objectives: This study tested the hypothesis that single-bottle total-etch adhesives are effective in reducing dentine permeability under in vivo conditions. Methods: Crown preparations on vital human teeth were performed under local analgesia as part of the treatment plan for prosthetic rehabilitation. Four single-bottle adhesives (Single Bond, 3M ESPE; Excite DSC, Ivoclar Vivadent; Prime and Bond NT Dual-Cure, Dentsply DeTrey and One-Step, Bisco Inc.) were applied to the cut dentine after acid-etching. Polyvinyl siloxane impressions were taken, using an ultra-low viscosity impression material, of the smear layer-covered dentine before applying the adhesives to deep vital dentine, and after adhesive placement. Additional impressions were taken of the adhesive-sealed dentine following the removal of the provisional prostheses after a 7-10 day period. Epoxy resin replicas of the crown preparations were examined with scanning electron microscopy to evaluate the extent of dentinal fluid transudation during pre-bonded, immediately bonded and post-bonded periods. Results: Dentinal fluid transudation from localised areas that were close to the dental pulp was universally observed from all epoxy resin replicas, irrespective of the adhesive employed. The transudation of dentinal fluid from the control smear layer-covered dentine of each crown preparation was comparatively mild when compared to the extent that was observed after total-etching and application of the single-bottle adhesive. Dentinal fluid droplets were specifically located over the surface of the adhesive layer. Continuous transudation of dentinal fluid occurred even after the removal of the provisional prostheses, and was considerably more profuse in subjects who opted for the fitting of the permanent prostheses without the use of a local anaesthetic solution. Conclusion: Single-bottle adhesives, because of their lack of a comparatively more hydrophobic bonding resin layer, behave as permeable membranes after polymerisation. They permit the continuous transudation of dentinal fluid and do not provide a hermetic seal in vital deep dentine. Although the relatively slow rate of diffusion of dentinal fluid is unlikely to result in post-operative cold sensitivity, it may interfere with the optimal polymerisation of dual-cured or auto-cured composites or resin cements in both direct and indirect restorations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)611-621
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Dentistry
Issue number8
StatePublished - Nov 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Dentinal fluid
  • Permeability
  • Total-etch
  • Two-step
  • Vital dentine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)


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