Skeletal malformations resulting from cadmium treatment in the hamster

T. F. Gale, V. H. Ferm

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


Previous studies have shown that cadmium induces a variety of grossly detectable malformations in the golden hamster including exencephaly, cleft lip and palate, amelia, micromelia and ectrodactyly. This report presents the frequency and types of underlying skeletal malformations induced by the intravenous administration of cadmium at 4 times during the critical stages in hamster embryo organogenesis. In general, all areas of the skeletal system are damaged by this heavy metal. This is manifested by the absence or poor development of ossification centers in different bones. Possible mechanisms of action of cadmium are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)149-160
Number of pages12
JournalBiology of the Neonate - Foetal and Neonatal Research
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Jan 1 1973
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental Biology


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