Smear Layer Removal Using Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation and Different Concentrations of Sodium Hypochlorite

Nayra Bittencourt Orlowski, Tamer Ferreira Schimdt, Cleonice da Silveira Teixeira, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti Garcia, Julia Menezes Savaris, Franklin R. Tay, Eduardo Antunes Bortoluzzi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Introduction: The present study evaluated the effect of passive ultrasonic activation (PUI) of EDTA solution followed by conventional irrigation with 2 concentrations of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on smear layer removal. Methods: Fifty single-root mandibular premolars were chemomechanically prepared with ProTaper Universal (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) nickel-titanium rotary instruments and 1% NaOCl. The roots were cleaved, and the dentin surfaces were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy operated at a low vacuum. Images were obtained from previously demarcated areas in each root canal third. The teeth were reassembled and distributed into 5 groups according to the final irrigation protocols (n = 10): group 1, EDTA/PUI + 1% NaOCl; group 2, EDTA/PUI + 5% NaOCl; group 3, EDTA/CI + 1% NaOCl; group 4, EDTA/CI + 5% NaOCl; and group 5 (negative control), saline solution/PUI. After irrigation, the teeth were reseparated and prepared for conventional high-vacuum scanning electron microscopy of the same dentin surface that was previously analyzed. The amount of debris was classified using a 4-point scoring system. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests at α = 0.05. Results: Groups 1 and 2, which used PUI and different concentrations of NaOCl, were not significantly different; however, they differed significantly from group 3 (P <.05). With respect to canal cleanliness at different root thirds, all groups showed the worst cleaning at the apical third. Conclusions: PUI activation of the EDTA irrigant is required when canal debridement is performed with EDTA and a lower concentration of NaOCl.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1738-1744
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of endodontics
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2020


  • EDTA
  • irrigation
  • smear layer
  • sodium hypochlorite
  • ultrasonic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)


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