T cell regulatory plasmacytoid dendritic cells expressing indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase

Andrew L. Mellor, David J. Kahler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Mature dendritic cells (DCs) are potent stimulators of T cells that recognize antigens presented by the DCs. In this chapter we describe mature DCs that suppress T cell responses to antigens they present due to expression of the intracel-lular enzyme indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO). IDO-competent DCs are a subset of plasmacytoid DCs that can be induced to express IDO under certain inflammatory conditions in humans and mice. Though rare, IDO-expressing DCs acquire potent T cell suppressor activity that may predominate over the T cell stimulatory functions of all other antigen-presenting cells in physiologic environments due in part, to cooperation with regulatory T cells. Thus, IDO-expressing DCs are critical regulators of adaptive immunity that contribute to a wide range of inflammatory disease processes. As such, manipulating IDO expression in DCs using IDO inhibitors or IDO inducers offers considerable opportunities to improve immunotherapies in a range of clinically-significant disease syndromes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)165-196
Number of pages32
JournalHandbook of Experimental Pharmacology
StatePublished - Jun 25 2009

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)
  • Biochemistry


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