T1dmicro: A clinical risk calculator for type 1 diabetes related microvascular complications

Paul Minh Huy Tran, Eileen Kim, Lynn Kim Hoang Tran, Bin Satter Khaled, Diane Hopkins, Melissa Gardiner, Jennifer Bryant, Risa Bernard, John Morgan, Bruce Bode, John Chip Reed, Jin Xiong She, Sharad Purohit

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Development of complications in type 1 diabetes patients can be reduced by modifying risk factors. We used a cross-sectional cohort of 1646 patients diagnosed with type 1 diabetes (T1D) to develop a clinical risk score for diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), autonomic neuropathy (AN), retinopathy (DR), and nephropathy (DN). Of these patients, 199 (12.1%) had DPN, 63 (3.8%) had AN, 244 (14.9%) had DR, and 88 (5.4%) had DN. We selected five variables to include in each of the four microvascular complications risk models: age, age of T1D diagnosis, duration of T1D, and average systolic blood pressure and HbA1C over the last three clinic visits. These variables were selected for their strong evidence of association with diabetic complications in the literature and because they are modifiable risk factors. We found the optimism-corrected R2 and Harrell’s C statistic were 0.39 and 0.87 for DPN, 0.24 and 0.86 for AN, 0.49 and 0.91 for DR, and 0.22 and 0.83 for DN, respectively. This tool was built to help inform patients of their current risk of microvascular complications and to motivate patients to control their HbA1c and systolic blood pressure in order to reduce their risk of these complications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number11094
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number21
StatePublished - Nov 1 2021


  • Clinical calculator
  • Complications
  • Nephropathy
  • Peripheral and autonomic neuropathy
  • Retinopathy
  • Risk prediction
  • Type 1 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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