Targets of vascular protection in acute ischemic stroke differ in type 2 diabetes

Aisha I. Kelly-Cobbs, Roshini Prakash, Weiguo Li, Bindu Pillai, Sherif Hafez, Maha Coucha, Maribeth H. Johnson, Safia N. Ogbi, Susan C. Fagan, Adviye Ergul

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


Hemorrhagic transformation is an important complication of acute ischemic stroke, particularly in diabetic patients receiving thrombolytic treatment with tissue plasminogen activator, the only approved drug for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of acute manipulation of potential targets for vascular protection [i.e., NF-κB, peroxynitrite, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)] on vascular injury and functional outcome in a diabetic model of cerebral ischemia. Ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion in control and type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. Treatment groups received a single dose of the peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)prophyrinato iron (III), the nonspecific NF-κB inhibitor curcumin, or the broadspectrum MMP inhibitor minocycline at reperfusion. Poststroke infarct volume, edema, hemorrhage, neurological deficits, and MMP-9 activity were evaluated. All acute treatments reduced MMP-9 and hemorrhagic transformation in diabetic groups. In addition, acute curcumin and minocycline therapy reduced edema in these animals. Improved neurological function was observed in varying degrees with treatment, as indicated by beam-walk performance, modified Bederson scores, and grip strength; however, infarct size was similar to untreated diabetic animals. In control animals, all treatments reduced MMP-9 activity, yet bleeding was not improved. Neuroprotection was only conferred by curcumin and minocycline. Uncovering the underlying mechanisms contributing to the success of acute therapy in diabetes will advance tailored stroke therapies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)H806-H815
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2013


  • 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)prophyrinato iron (III)
  • Curcumin
  • Minocycline
  • Nuclear factor- κB
  • Vascular protection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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