Technique of laparoscopic ultrasound examination of the liver and pancreas

J. Machi, J. H. Schwartz, H. A. Zaren, T. Noritomi, B. Sigel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Since the introduction of a recent laparoscopic ultrasound (LU), the value of this modality in examining the liver and pancreas has been reported. However, a precise scanning technique of LU has not previously been described. Based on our experience with intraoperative ultrasound during laparotomy, we have developed a technique for complete examination of the entire organs using a rigid LU probe. A 7.5-MHz rigid probe, 10 mm in diameter, was employed. The scanning was performed through three trocar ports: right subcostal, subxiphoid, and umbilical. For the liver, the subcostal scanning provided fundamental transverse views. The subxiphoid and umbilical scanning delineated the areas unable to be imaged by the subcostal scanning. For the pancreas, the subcostal and umbilical scanning demonstrated longitudinal and transverse views, respectively. The subxiphoid scanning enhanced examination of the pancreatic head. Three basic probe maneuvers (advancement-withdrawal, lateral movement, and rotation) and various scanning techniques (contact, probe-standoff, and compression scanning) should be utilized appropriately. With a rigid probe, complete LU examination of the liver and pancreas is possible using these techniques. We believe the present scanning method will help more surgeons learn LU.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)684-689
Number of pages6
JournalSurgical endoscopy
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1996
Externally publishedYes


  • Intraoperative ultrasound
  • Laparoscopic ultrasound
  • Liver
  • Pancreas
  • Ultrasound technique

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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