Temperature-Insensitive Contact Force Sensing in Bi-Directional Catheter Using Fiber Bragg Grating Pair

Li Xu, Leah A. Feuerman, Jia Ge, Kent R. Nilsson, Mable P. Fok

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Bi-directional catheters are commonly used in electrophysiology mapping and ablation procedures. We have designed and demonstrated a temperature-insensitive contact force sensor for bi-directional catheters with variable curve diameter during deflection. The compact force sensor is based on a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) pair, where both FBGs have the same center wavelength and are fixed at two opposite deflection arcs of the bi-directional catheter. When the catheter is deflected or when contact force is applied to the catheter, bifurcation of the FBG pair spectrum is observed. The amount of spectral bifurcation and the applied contact force has a linear relationship. Contact force measurement, therefore, is accomplished by measuring the change in the spectral bifurcation of the FBG pair, i.e., the change in the Bragg wavelength difference between the two FBGs. Since the approach relies solely on the amount of spectral bifurcation of the FBG pair instead of the Bragg wavelength shift of one single FBG, the proposed contact force sensor is temperature insensitive.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7954956
Pages (from-to)5118-5122
Number of pages5
JournalIEEE Sensors Journal
Issue number16
StatePublished - Aug 15 2017


  • Contact force sensor
  • bi-directional catheters
  • fiber Bragg gratings
  • fiber optics sensors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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