The effectiveness of antipsychotic medications in patients who use or avoid illicit substances: Results from the CATIE study

Marvin S. Swartz, H. Ryan Wagner, Jeffrey W. Swanson, T. Scott Stroup, Joseph Patrick McEvoy, Fred Reimherr, Del D. Miller, Mark McGee, Ahsan Khan, Jose M. Canive, Sonia M. Davis, John K. Hsiao, Jeffrey A. Lieberman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Scopus citations


Objective: This double-blind study compared a second generation (atypical) antipsychotic drugs compared to a representative older agent for patients with schizophrenia who use or avoid illicit substances. Methods: Schizophrenic subjects were recruited at 57 U.S. sites and randomly assigned to olanzapine, perphenazine, quetiapine, risperidone or ziprasidone for up to 18 months. The primary aim of this analysis was to delineate differences between the overall effectiveness of these five treatments among patients who used or did not use illicit substances. Results: There were no significant differences between treatment groups in time to all-cause treatment discontinuation among patients who use illicit drugs (median 3.3 to 6.8 months). Among non-users time to treatment discontinuation was significantly longer for patients treated with olanzapine (median 13.0 months) than perphenazine ( 5.9 months), risperidone (5.6 months), or quetiapine (5.0 months); time to discontinuation for ziprasidone (4.3 months) was even shorter, although the latter difference was not significant. The difference between risperidone and quetiapine, although small, was significant. All remaining differences were non-significant. Similar results were found for discontinuation due to inefficacy. There were no differences between illicit users and non-users in symptom reduction and global improvement, after adjustment for differential duration of treatment. Differences in discontinuation results were attenuated by non-compliance, but the trends persisted after controlling for treatment compliance. Conclusions: Among patients with chronic schizophrenia who avoid use of illicit drugs, olanzapine was more effective than other antipsychotics as reflected by longer time to all-cause discontinuation, but illicit substance abuse attenuated this advantage, reinforcing the need for concurrent substance abuse treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)39-52
Number of pages14
JournalSchizophrenia Research
Issue number1-3
StatePublished - Mar 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Antipsychotics
  • Dual disorders
  • Schizophrenia
  • Substance abuse

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry


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