The expanding family of neutrophil-derived extracellular vesicles

Alex Marki, Klaus Ley

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Neutrophils are immune cells involved in several inflammatory and homeostatic processes. Their capacity to release cargo can be classified based on whether the cargo is released on its own, or in conjunction with plasma membrane structures. Examples of plasma membrane-free secretion modes are degranulation, neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) release, and cytokine release through inflammasome formation. The most studied membrane-covered neutrophil-derived structures are exosomes and ectosomes that are collectively called extracellular vesicles (EV). Apoptotic vesicles are another recognized EV subtype. Over the last decade, additional membrane-covered neutrophil-derived structures were characterized: migratory cytoplasts, migrasomes, and elongated neutrophil-derived structures (ENDS). All these structures are smaller than the neutrophils, cannot reproduce themselves, and thus meet the latest consensus definition of EVs. In this review, we focus on the less well-studied neutrophil EVs: apoptotic vesicles, cytoplasts, migrasomes, and ENDS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)52-60
Number of pages9
JournalImmunological Reviews
Issue number1
StatePublished - Nov 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • apoptotic body
  • cytoplast
  • ectosome
  • elongated neutrophil-derived particles
  • ENDS
  • Exosome
  • migrasome
  • mitosome
  • NET
  • neutrophil-derived extracellular trap

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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