The second touch hypothesis states that T cell activation, proliferation, induction of homing receptors and polarization are distinguishable and, at least in part, sequential. The second touch hypothesis maintains that full T cell polarization requires T cell interaction with antigen-presenting cells (DCs, macrophages, B cells and certain activated stromal cells) in the non-lymphoid tissue where the antigen resides. Upon initial antigen encounter in peripheral lymph nodes (PLN), T cells become activated, proliferate and express homing receptors that enable them to recirculate to the (inflamed) tissue that contains the antigen. Differentiation into the T helper lineages Th1, Th2, Th17 and induced regulatory T cells (iTreg) requires additional antigen presentation by tissue macrophages and other antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the inflamed tissue. Here, I present a conceptual framework for the importance of peripheral (non-lymphoid) antigen presentation to antigen-experienced T cells.
|Original language||English (US)|
|State||Published - Feb 5 2014|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)