Therapeutic options for the management of oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patients

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63 Scopus citations


Mucocutaneous candidiasis is frequently one of the first signs of HIV infection. Over 90% of patients with AIDS will develop oropharyngeal candidiasis at some time during their illness. Although numerous antifungal agents are available, azoles, both topical (clotrimazole) and systemic (fluconazole, itraconazole), have replaced older topical antifungals (gentian violet and nystatin) in the management of oropharyngeal candidiasis in these patients. The systemic azoles, itraconazole and fluconazole, are generally safe and effective agents in HIV-infected patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis. A concern in these patients is clinical relapse, which appears to be dependent on degree of immunosuppression and is more common following clotrimazole and ketoconazole than following fluconazole or itraconazole. Candida esophagitis is also of concern, since it occurs in more than 10% of patients with AIDS. Fluconazole is an integral part of the management of mucosal candidiasis. A cyclodextrin oral solution formulation of itraconazole has clinical response rates similar to fluconazole and is an effective alternative. In patients with fluconazolerefractory mucosal candidiasis, treatment options include itraconazole, amphotericin B oral suspension, and parenteral amphotericin B.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)47-59
Number of pages13
JournalHIV Clinical Trials
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2000
Externally publishedYes


  • Antifungal agents
  • Candidiasis
  • Hiv infection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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