Tobacco control and household tobacco consumption: A tale of two educational groups

Biplab Kumar Datta, Muhammad Jami Husain, Ishtiaque Fazlul

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Since the ratification of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in 2004, Pakistan has made modest but continued progress in implementing various tobacco control measures. By 2014, substantial progress was achieved in areas of monitoring, mass media antitobacco campaigns, and advertising bans. However, the findings from the 2014 Global Adult Tobacco Survey of Pakistan show significant differences in antitobacco campaign exposure among individuals of different educational attainment. Given this large variation in noticing antitobacco information, this paper analyzes how heterogeneity in treatment exposure may differentially impact tobacco-use prevalence across household groups. Household-level tobacco-use prevalence in 2014 was, respectively, 56% and 48% for the low- and high-education households. The gap in tobacco-use prevalence between the two educational groups further widens post 2014. We find that, on average, individuals with higher than primary education are 14 percentage points and 6 percentage points more likely to notice anticigarette and antismokeless tobacco information in 2014, respectively. Subsequently, in 2016, high-education households experienced a 3.6 percentage point higher reduction in tobacco-use prevalence compared to the low-education households. These findings motivate policies to enhance the outreach of tobacco control measures across different educational groups.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1117-1131
Number of pages15
JournalHealth Economics (United Kingdom)
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • inequality
  • population health
  • public health
  • smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Policy


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