Transforming growth factor-β regulates the expression of anosmin (KAL-1) in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

Raghavan Raju, Bixi Jian, John J. Hooks, Chandrasekharam N. Nagineni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


In a microarray analysis of human retinal pigment epithelial cells (HRPE) treated with TGF-β, in addition to the alteration of a number of known Extracellular matrix (ECM)-related genes regulated by TGF-β, we found a significant increase in the expression of Kallmann Syndrome (KAL)-1 gene, that codes for the protein anosmin-1. Enhanced expression of KAL-1 by TGF-β was validated by real-time PCR analysis. In in vitro experiments, TGF-β receptor inhibitor abolished TGF-β-induced expression of KAL-1. Immunofluorescence staining showed increased presence of anosmin-1 in TGF-β treated HRPE cells, with distinct localization at the intercellular junctions. Treatment of HRPE cells with TGF-β enhanced secretion of anosmin-1 and the release of anosmin-1 was further augmented by heparin sulfate. Enhanced secretion of anosmin-1 in the presence of TGF-β and heparin was also observed in other ocular cells such as corneal epithelial and corneal fibroblast cultures. The role of anosmin-1, a protein with adhesion functions, in retinal structure, function and pathology has not been known and remains to be investigated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)724-727
Number of pages4
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Adhesion proteins
  • Anosmin
  • KAL-1
  • Retinal pigment epithelium
  • TGF-β

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Biochemistry
  • Hematology
  • Molecular Biology


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