Use of different concentrations of carbamide peroxide for bleaching teeth: An in vitro study

Ralph H. Leonard, Anita Sharma, Van B. Haywood

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

115 Scopus citations


Objective: This in vitro study compared the shade changes in extracted teeth during 2 weeks' whitening with 5%, 10%, or 16% carbamide peroxide. Method and materials: After color calibration, the sole examiner selected 110 extracted unrestored, noncarious teeth, shade A3 or darker on a value-oriented guide. The teeth were randomly distributed into equal color groups. The control group (11 teeth) was treated with 0.9% saline, while the experimental groups (33 teeth each) were treated with 5%, 10%, or 16% carbamide peroxide. The solutions remained on the teeth for 8 hours. The teeth and tray were rinsed with tap water for 2 minutes; then rehydrated in 0.9% saline for 16 hours in the humidifier. The shade was assessed, and the process was repeated daily for 2 weeks. Results: Repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated a significant difference in overall shade values between the control and all carbamide peroxide-treated groups at days 8 and 15. A Kaplan-Meier Survival Analysis indicated a quicker two-tab color change for the 10% and 16% groups than the 5% group. However, continuation of the 5% treatment to 3 weeks resulted in shades that approached the 2-week 10% and 16% values. Conclusion: Lower concentrations of carbamide peroxide take longer to whiten teeth but eventually achieve the same result as higher concentrations. Higher concentrations may cause increased sensitivity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)503-507
Number of pages5
JournalQuintessence international
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1 1998
Externally publishedYes


  • Carbamide peroxide
  • Color change
  • Nightguard vital bleaching
  • Shade guide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)


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