Virtual implant planning in the edentulous maxilla: Criteria for decision making of prosthesis design

Marianna Avrampou, Regina Mericske-Stern, Markus B. Blatz, Joannis Katsoulis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations


Objectives: To evaluate prosthetic parameters in the edentulous anterior maxilla for decision making between fixed and removable implant prosthesis using virtual planning software. Material and methods: CT- or DVT-scans of 43 patients (mean age 62 ± 8 years) with an edentulous maxilla were analyzed with the NobelGuide™ software. Implants (≥3.5 mm diameter, ≥10 mm length) were virtually placed in the optimal three-dimensional prosthetic position of all maxillary front teeth. Anatomical and prosthetic landmarks, including the cervical crown point (C-Point), the acrylic flange border (F-Point), and the implant-platform buccal-end (I-Point) were defined in each middle section to determine four measuring parameters: (1) acrylic flange height (FLHeight), (2) mucosal coverage (MucCov), (3) crown-Implant distance (CID) and (4) buccal prosthesis profile (ProsthProfile). Based on these parameters, all patients were assigned to one of three classes: (A) MucCov ≤ 0 mm and ProsthProfile≥450 allowing for fixed prosthesis, (B) MucCov = 0-5 mm and/or ProsthProfile = 300-450 probably allowing for fixed prosthesis, and (C) MucCov ≥ 5 mm and/or ProsthProfile ≤ 300 where removable prosthesis is favorable. Statistical analyses included descriptive methods and non-parametric tests. Results: Mean values were for FLHeight 10.0 mm, MucCov 5.6 mm, CID 7.4 mm, and ProsthProfile 39.10. Seventy percent of patients fulfilled class C criteria (removable), 21% class B (probably fixed), and 2% class A (fixed), while in 7% (three patients) bone volume was insufficient for implant planning. Conclusions: The proposed classification and virtual planning procedure simplify the decision-making process regarding type of prosthesis and increase predictability of esthetic treatment outcomes. It was demonstrated that in the majority of cases, the space between the prosthetic crown and implant platform had to be filled with prosthetic materials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)152-159
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Oral Implants Research
Issue numberA100
StatePublished - Aug 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Computer-assisted implantology
  • Decision making
  • Edentulous maxilla
  • Three-dimensional
  • Virtual implant planning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oral Surgery


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