Water concentration in self-etching primers affects their aggressiveness and bonding efficacy to dentin

N. Hiraishi, N. Nishiyama, K. Ikemura, J. Y.Y. Yau, N. M. King, J. Tagami, D. H. Pashley, F. R. Tay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

87 Scopus citations


Water is required to ionize acid resin monomers for demineralization of tooth substrates. We tested the null hypothesis that altering the water concentration in two-step self-etching primers has no effect on their aggressiveness and bonding efficacy to dentin. Five experimental self-etching primers were prepared with resin-water-ethanol volume ratios of 9-0-1, 8-1-1, 7-2-1, 5-4-1, and 3-6-1. They were applied to smear-layer-covered dentin, followed by a bonding resin and composite build-ups for microtensile bond testing and TEM examination of tracer penetration. Increasing water concentration from 0-60 vol% improved acidic monomer ionization that was manifested as increasing hybrid layer thickness. However, significantly higher bond strength was observed in the 7-2-1 group, with minimal nanoleakage in the corresponding hybrid layer. When self-etching primers are formulated, a balance must be achieved to provide sufficient water for adequate ionization of the acidic monomers, without lowering the resin concentration too much, to optimize their bonding efficacy to dentin.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)653-658
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Dental Research
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Acidic monomer
  • Dentin
  • Microtensile bond strength
  • Nanoleakage
  • Water content

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)


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