A neurophysiological and clinical study of Brunnstrom recovery stages in the upper limb following stroke

Soofia Naghdi, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari, Korosh Mansouri, Scott Hasson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

101 Scopus citations


Primary objective: To determine the extent to which the Brunnstrom recovery stages of upper limb in hemiparetic stroke patients are correlated to neurophysiological measures and the spasticity measure of Modified Modified Ashworth Scale (MMAS). Research design: A concurrent criterion-related validity study. Interventions: Not applicable. Methods and procedures: Thirty patients (15 men and 15 women; mean ± SD 58.8 ± 11.5 years) with upper limb spasticity after stroke were recruited. Wrist flexor spasticity was rated using the MMAS. The neurophysiological measures were Hslp/Mslp ratio, Hmax/Mmax ratio and Hslp. Main outcomes and results: There was a significant moderate correlation between the Brunnstrom recovery stages and the neurophysiological measures. The Brunnstrom recovery stages were highly correlated to the MMAS scores (r -0.81, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The Brunnstrom recovery stages are moderately correlated with neurophysiological measures and highly correlated with the MMAS regarding the evaluation of motor recovery in stroke patients. The Brunnstrom recovery stages can be used as a valid test for the assessment of patients with post-stroke hemiplegia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1372-1378
Number of pages7
JournalBrain Injury
Issue number11
StatePublished - Oct 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • H-reflex
  • Modified Modified Ashworth Scale
  • The Brunnstrom recovery stages
  • spasticity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience (miscellaneous)
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Clinical Neurology


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