Administration of raloxifene reduces sensorimotor and working memory deficits following traumatic brain injury

Olga N. Kokiko, Alexander K. Murashov, Michael R. Hoane

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Scopus citations


Hormonal differences between males and females have surfaced as a crucial component in the search for effective treatments after experimental models of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recent findings have shown that selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) may have therapeutic benefit. The present study examined the effects of raloxifene, a SERM, on functional recovery after bilateral cortical contusion injury (bCCI) or sham procedure. Male rats received injections of raloxifene (3.0 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle (1.0 ml/kg, i.p.) 15 min, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after bCCI or sham procedure. Rats were tested on both sensorimotor (bilateral tactile removal and locomotor placing tests) and cognitive tests (reference and working memory in the Morris water maze). Raloxifene-treated animals showed a significant reduction in the initial magnitude of the deficit and facilitated the rate of recovery for the bilateral tactile removal test, compared to vehicle-treated animals. The raloxifene-treated animals also showed a significant improvement in the acquisition of working memory compared to vehicle-treated animals. However, raloxifene did not significantly improve the acquisition of reference memory or locomotor placing ability. Raloxifene treatment also did not result in a significant reduction in the size of the lesion cavity. Thus, the task-dependent improvements seen following raloxifene treatment do not appear to be the result of cortical neuroprotection. However, these results suggest that raloxifene improves functional outcome following bCCI and may present an interesting avenue for future research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)233-240
Number of pages8
JournalBehavioural Brain Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 30 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Neuroprotection
  • Rat
  • Recovery of function
  • SERM
  • Traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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