Apical surgery: Endoscopic findings at the resection level of 168 consecutively treated roots

T. Von Arx, R. Gemmet Steiner, F. R. Tay

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34 Scopus citations


von Arx T, Gemmet Steiner R, Tay FR. Apical surgery: endoscopic findings at the resection level of 168 consecutively treated roots. International Endodontic Journal. Aim Endoscopic evaluation of the cut root face after root-end resection during apical surgery. Methodology Consecutive cases undergoing apical surgery from June 2006 to May 2008 were enrolled. After root-end resection, the cut root face was inspected with a rigid endoscope and the following findings were assessed: number of canals, presence of isthmus, presence and location of craze lines/cracks, frosted dentine, and gaps between root filling material and dentine. Craze lines/cracks, frosted dentine and gaps were further correlated with the age group of the patient (<45 vs. ≥45years), the type of treated tooth and the presence or absence of a post/screw. Results The final material included 168 resected roots. The highest frequency of isthmuses was found in mesial roots of mandibular first molars (88.5%). A craze line/crack was seen in 9.5%, frosted dentine in 79.8% and gaps in 83.3% at the cut root faces. Significant differences were observed for the location of the microfindings at the resected root surfaces (buccal vs. mesial vs. lingual vs. distal, P>0.0001). Premolars had significantly more craze lines/cracks than anterior teeth (P=0.006) and molars (P=0.000). Frosted dentine was significantly more frequently seen in premolars (P=0.027) and molars (P=0.001) compared to anterior teeth. The age groups and the presence or absence of a post/screw did not significantly influence the findings. Conclusions Frosted dentine and gaps were frequently observed with endoscopy at the resected root surfaces. The type of tooth appeared to affect the occurrence of a craze line/crack and of frosted dentine.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)290-302
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Endodontic Journal
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2011


  • Apical surgery
  • Cut root face
  • Endoscopy
  • Microfindings

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)


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