Association of vitamin D with incident glaucoma: Findings from the Women's Health Initiative

Laura D. Carbone, Karen Johnson, Joseph C. Larson, Fridtjof Thomas, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Kathryn Bollinger, Zhao Chen, Mitchell Watsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The relationship between vitamin D and glaucoma is controversial. The objective of this study was to examine women from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) to determine if there is an association between vitamin D and incident glaucoma in postmenopausal women. We examined the association between dietary vitamin D intake, vitamin D supplements and serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and the risk of developing glaucoma. 143,389 postmenopausal women from the WHI including a subset with serum 25(OH) D measurements were examined to determine the association of dietary, supplemental and serum levels of vitamin D to the development of glaucoma. Dietary intakes of vitamin D, use of vitamin D supplements and serum levels of 25(OH) D were predictors examined for the main outcome of incident glaucoma. In multivariable models adjusted for demographic, clinical variables and medication use, dietary vitamin D, vitamin D supplements, total vitamin D intake (diet plus supplements) and serum 25 (OH) D measurements were not significantly associated with incident glaucoma. In the CaD placebo-controlled intervention clinical trial, there was also no association in the active intervention arm with glaucoma. We conclude that dietary vitamin D intake, supplements and serum levels are not significantly related to the risk of developing glaucoma in postmenopausal women.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)843-850
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Investigative Medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2021


  • blindness
  • vitamin D
  • vitamin D deficiency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)


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