Dental Anatomy and Occlusion: Mandibular Incisors-Flipped Classroom Learning Module

Jan Karen Mitchell, Martha Brackett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Introduction: This dental anatomy module is the second in a series that develops skills in analyzing the morphology, function, anomalies, and development of human teeth. Learning the visual details associated with teeth has often proven difficult using the lecture format; thus, we have utilized computer-assisted flipped learning, which has been shown to be just as effective as lectures and frees up class time for active learning. Methods: In a flipped classroom approach, students learn basic knowledge with a self-paced, interactive tutorial prior to class. In class, students are assigned to small groups and start with a readiness assessment quiz, administered first individually and then to each team. This is followed by a review for the whole class. The teams then practice critical thinking through practical application scenarios; a laboratory exercise follows where students wax tooth #25 and tooth #26. Results: Students rated faculty members who used team-based learning higher than those who used lecture format for similar morphology lectures. For the first 3 years that this flipped classroom technique was used, students consistently scored it higher than the lecture format on a 5-point Likert scale. Multiple positive comments indicated their preference for this method. Discussion: Teaching students to see the subtle variations in tooth morphology takes time and attention. In a lecture, each key point is covered only once, and images appear fleetingly. A key advantage of the self-paced interactive tutorial coupled with flipped classroom activities is that each learner can take the time needed with each image in a tutorial.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)10587
Number of pages1
JournalMedEdPORTAL : the journal of teaching and learning resources
StatePublished - May 24 2017


  • Dental Hygiene
  • Dental Morphology
  • Flipped Classroom
  • Mandibular Incisors
  • Preclinic Dental Education


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