Downregulation of vascular matrix metalloproteinase inducer and activator proteins in hypertensive patients

Adviye Ergul, Vera Portik-Dobos, Jimmie Hutchinson, Jennifer Franco, Mark P. Anstadt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Peripheral vasculature undergoes extensive vascular remodeling in the hypertensive state. Regulation of extracellular matrix turnover by the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) system is an important step in the vascular remodeling process. However, the expression pattern of the vascular MMP system in human hypertension remained unknown. Internal mammary artery specimens were obtained from normotensive (n = 13) and hypertensive (n = 19) patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. Zymographic analysis indicated a threefold decrease in total gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in hypertension. MMP-1 activity was also decreased by fourfold without a significant change in protein levels. Tissue levels of extracellular matrix inducer protein (EMMPRIN), MMP activator protein (MT1-MMP), MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9, as well as tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) were assessed by immunoblotting and yielded a significant decrease in MMP-9, EMMPRIN, and MT1-MMP levels in hypertension. In addition, measurement of plasma markers of collagen synthesis (procollagen type I amino-terminal propeptide [PINP]) and collagen degradation (carboxy-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I [ICTP]) indicated no difference in PINP levels but suppressed degradation of collagen in hypertension. Evaluation of profibrotic growth factors demonstrated higher levels of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 in tissue preparations from hypertensive patients but no difference in transforming growth factor-β1 levels. These findings demonstrate that not only MMP-1 and MMP-9, but MMP inducer and activator proteins are also downregulated in the hypertensive state. Augmented FGF-2 levels may contribute to parallel decreases in MMP activity and MMP induction system resulting in enhanced collagen deposition in hypertension.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)775-782
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican journal of hypertension
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2004


  • Matrix metalloproteinase
  • extracellular matrix
  • growth factors
  • vascular remodeling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine


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