Effectiveness of social cognitive theory-based interventions for glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: Protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

Yvonne Smith, Rosalia Garcia-Torres, Steven S. Coughlin, Jiying Ling, Terri Marin, Shaoyong Su, Lufei Young

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: For those living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), failing to engage in self-management behaviors leads to poor glycemic control. Social cognitive theory (SCT) has been shown to improve health behaviors by altering cognitive processes and increasing an individual's belief in their ability to accomplish a task.

OBJECTIVE: We aim to present a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis to systematically identify, evaluate, and analyze the effect of SCT-based interventions to improve glycemic control in adults with T2DM.

METHODS: This protocol follows the 2009 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Data sources will include PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsychINFO, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science, and data will be reviewed with the use of customized text mining software. Studies examining SCT-based behavioral interventions for adults diagnosed with T2DM in randomized controlled trials located in the outpatient setting will be included. Intervention effectiveness will be compared with routine care. Screening and data collection will be performed in multiple stages with three reviewers as follows: (1) an independent review of titles/abstracts, (2) a full review, and (3) data collection with alternating teams of two reviewers for disputes to be resolved by a third reviewer. Study quality and risk of bias will be assessed by three reviewers using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Standardized mean differences will be used to describe the intervention effect sizes with regard to self-efficacy and diabetes knowledge. The raw mean difference of HbA1c will be provided in a random effects model and presented in a forest plot. The expected limitations of this study are incomplete data, the need to contact authors, and analysis of various types of glycemic control measures accurately within the same data set.

RESULTS: This protocol was granted institutional review board exemption on October 7, 2019. PROSPERO registration (ID: CRD42020147105) was received on April 28, 2020. The review began on April 29, 2020. The results of the review will be disseminated through conference presentations, peer-reviewed journals, and meetings.

CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review will appraise the effectiveness of SCT-based interventions for adults diagnosed with T2DM and provide the most effective interventions for improving health behaviors in these patients.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020147105; https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=147105.


Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere17148
Pages (from-to)e17148
JournalJMIR Research Protocols
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2020


  • Glycemic control
  • Glycosylated hemoglobin
  • HbA1c
  • Self-efficacy
  • Self-management
  • Social cognitive theory
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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