Estimating 24-Hour Urinary Excretion of Sodium and Potassium Is More Reliable from 24-Hour Urine Than Spot Urine Sample in a Feeding Study of US Older Postmenopausal Women

Lesley F. Tinker, Ying Huang, Karen C. Johnson, Laura D. Carbone, Linda Snetselaar, Linda Van Horn, Jo Ann E. Manson, Simin Liu, Yasmin Mossavar-Rahmani, Ross L. Prentice, Johanna W. Lampe, Marian L. Neuhouser

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background: Assessing estimated sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intakes derived from 24-h urinary excretions compared with a spot urine sample, if comparable, could reduce participant burden in epidemiologic and clinical studies. Objectives: In a 2-week controlled-feeding study, Na and K excretions from a 24-h urine collection were compared with a first-void spot urine sample, applying established algorithms and enhanced models to estimate 24-h excretion. Actual and estimated 24-h excretions were evaluated relative to mean daily Na and K intakes in the feeding study. Methods: A total of 153 older postmenopausal women ages 75.4 ± 3.5 y participated in a 2-wk controlled-feeding study with a 4-d repeating menu cycle based on their usual intake ( Identifier: NCT00000611). Of the 150 participants who provided both a first-void spot urine sample and a 24-h urine collection on the penultimate study day, statistical methods included Pearson correlations for Na and K between intake, 24-h collections, and the 24-h estimated excretions using 4 established algorithms: Enhanced biomarker models by regressing ln-transformed intakes on ln-transformed 24-h excretions or ln-transformed 24-h estimated excretions plus participant characteristics and sensitivity analyses for factors potentially influencing Na or K excretion (e.g., possible kidney disease estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2). Results: Pearson correlation coefficients between Na and K intakes and actual 24-h excretions were 0.57 and 0.38-0.44 for estimated 24-h excretions, depending on electrolyte and algorithm used. Enhanced biomarker model cross-validated R2 (CVR2) for 24-h excretions were 38.5% (Na), 40.2% (K), and 42.0% (Na/K). After excluding participants with possible kidney disease, the CVR2 values were 43.2% (Na), 40.2% (K), and 38.1% (Na/K). Conclusions: Twenty-four-hour urine excretion measurement performs better than estimated 24-h excretion from a spot urine as a biomarker for Na and K intake among a sample of primarily White postmenopausal women.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbernzab125
JournalCurrent Developments in Nutrition
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1 2021


  • 24-hour urine
  • biomarker
  • controlled-feeding study
  • postmenopausal women
  • potassium
  • sodium
  • spot urine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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