Eye on the Enigmatic Link: Dysbiotic Oral Pathogens in Ocular Diseases; The Flip Side

Pachiappan Arjunan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Mouth and associated structures were regarded as separate entities from the rest of the body. However, there is a paradigm shift in this conception and oral health is now considered as a fundamental part of overall well-being. In recent years, the subject of oral-foci of infection has attained a resurgence in terms of systemic morbidities while limited observations denote the implication of chronic oral inflammation in the pathogenesis of eye diseases. Hitherto, there is a paucity for mechanistic insights underlying the reported link between periodontal disease (PD) and ocular comorbidities. In light of prevailing scientific evidence, this review article will focus on the understudied theme, that is, the impact of oral dysbiosis in the induction and/or progression of inflammatory eye diseases like diabetic retinopathy, scleritis, uveitis, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Furthermore, the plausible mechanisms by which periodontal microbiota may trigger immune dysfunction in the Oro-optic-network and promote the development of PD-associated AMD have been discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)409-432
Number of pages24
JournalInternational Reviews of Immunology
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Age-related macular degeneration
  • angiogenesis
  • chronic inflammation
  • drusen
  • immune response
  • inflammation
  • oral microbiome
  • pathogens
  • periodontitis
  • retinal degeneration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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