Familial gonadotropin-releasing hormone resistance and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in a family with multiple affected individuals

Lawrence C Layman, Paul G McDonough, David P. Cohen, Mary Maddox, Sandra P.T. Tho, Richard H. Reindollar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Objective: To characterize the phenotype of idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism due to compound heterozygous GnRHR gene mutations (Arg262Gln/Tyr284Cys). Design: Retrospective review. Setting: Tertiary medical center. Patient(s): Family containing four siblings (three female and one male) with complete idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Intervention(s): Baseline and stimulated laboratory studies. One patient received GnRH treatment and one received human menopausal gonadotropins. Main Outcome Measure(s): Clinical phenotype vs. genotype is assessed by endocrine studies, karyotype, pedigree, and review of pathology slides of ovarian neoplasm. Result(s): With GnRH stimulation, two patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism had maximum LH < 10 mIU/mL, and two others had peak LH > 10 mIU/mL. With repeated GnRH stimulation 24 hours later, gonadotropin levels in all patients were increased. Stimulation of thyroid-releasing hormone and tests for insulin-induced hypoglycemia were normal. One affected patient did not ovulate after GnRH treatment, but her sister ovulated with gonadotropin treatment. Another affected sibling had bilateral oophorectomy for seromucinous cystadenomas, and her hypogonadotropic state remained after castration. The man with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and his unaffected brother had a ring chromosome 21. Conclusion(s): All patients with complete idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism had the same GnRHR mutations, but clinical presentations and endocrinologic responses were heterogeneous. Gonadotropin levels remained low in patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism after castration, and ring chromosome 21 was present, suggesting that sequences from this chromosome could affect the idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism phenotype.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1148-1155
Number of pages8
JournalFertility and sterility
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2001


  • GnRH receptor
  • Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism
  • Molecular genetics
  • Ring chromosome 21

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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