Functional biomimetic analogs help remineralize apatite-depleted demineralized resin-infiltrated dentin via a bottom-up approach

Jongryul Kim, Dwayne D. Arola, Lisha Gu, Young Kyung Kim, Sui Mai, Yan Liu, David Henry Pashley, Franklin Chi Meng Tay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

94 Scopus citations


Natural biominerals are formed through metastable amorphous precursor phases via a bottom-up, nanoparticle-mediated mineralization mechanism. Using an acid-etched human dentin model to create a layer of completely demineralized collagen matrix, a bio-inspired mineralization scheme has been developed based on the use of dual biomimetic analogs. These analogs help to sequester fluidic amorphous calcium phosphate nanoprecursors and function as templates for guiding homogeneous apatite nucleation within the collagen fibrils. By adopting this scheme for remineralizing adhesive resin-bonded, completely demineralized dentin, we have been able to redeposit intrafibrillar and extrafibrillar apatites in completely demineralized collagen matrices that are imperfectly infiltrated by resins. This study utilizes a spectrum of completely and partially demineralized dentin collagen matrices to further validate the necessity for using a biomimetic analog-containing medium for remineralizing resin-infiltrated partially demineralized collagen matrices in which remnant seed crystallites are present. In control specimens in which biomimetic analogs are absent from the remineralization medium, remineralization could only be seen in partially demineralized collagen matrices, probably by epitaxial growth via a top-down crystallization approach. Conversely, in the presence of biomimetic analogs in the remineralization medium, intrafibrillar remineralization of completely demineralized collagen matrices via a bottom-up crystallization mechanism can additionally be identified. The latter is characterized by the transition of intrafibrillar minerals from an inchoate state of continuously braided microfibrillar electron-dense amorphous strands to discrete nanocrystals, and ultimately into larger crystalline platelets within the collagen fibrils. Biomimetic remineralization via dual biomimetic analogs has the potential to be translated into a functional delivery system for salvaging failing resin-dentin bonds.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2740-2750
Number of pages11
JournalActa biomaterialia
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2010


  • Collagen
  • Dentin
  • Intrafibrillar
  • Remineralization
  • Self-etching adhesive

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biomaterials
  • Biochemistry
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Molecular Biology


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