Growth/differentiation factor-5: Pre-clinical and clinical evaluations of periodontal regeneration and alveolar augmentation - Review

Jaebum Lee, Ulf M E Wikesjö

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Aim: Growth/differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5) plays critical roles in mesenchymal cell differentiation and stimulates human periodontal ligament cell proliferation. Potentially, GDF-5 may also play roles in wound healing including periodontal regeneration and alveolar augmentation. The objective of this review was to provide up-to-date information from pre-clinical/clinical studies evaluating GDF-5 for these indications. Methods: A comprehensive search using PubMed and Google search engines was conducted to identify reports on GDF-5 applied to periodontal and alveolar indications. Two reviewers independently screened the titles and abstracts from a total of 479 reports. Full-length articles of 17 pre-clinical and four clinical studies were selected and reviewed. Results: Canine-, porcine- and non-human primate-based models as well as human clinical trials were used in the evaluation of GDF-5 in support of periodontal regeneration and alveolar augmentation. An absorbable collagen sponge (ACS), β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and a poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) were evaluated as candidate carriers for GDF-5 using various dose and healing intervals demonstrating significantly enhanced periodontal regeneration/alveolar augmentation including cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone with limited, if any, adverse effects. Conclusion: Growth/differentiation factor-5 supports periodontal regeneration/alveolar augmentation without aberrant healing events documented in qualified pre-clinical models and clinical pilot studies. In perspective, GDF-5 appears a promising technology for periodontal regeneration/alveolar augmentation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)797-805
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Clinical Periodontology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2014


  • GDF-5
  • alveolar bone
  • dental implants
  • periodontal regeneration
  • sinus augmentation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Periodontics


Dive into the research topics of 'Growth/differentiation factor-5: Pre-clinical and clinical evaluations of periodontal regeneration and alveolar augmentation - Review'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this