Hemodynamic function at rest, during acute stress, and in the field: Predictors of cardiac structure and function 2 years later in youth

Gaston K. Kapuku, Frank A. Treiber, Harry C. Davis, Gregory A. Harshfield, Barton B. Cook, George A. Mensah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

92 Scopus citations


Left ventricular hypertrophy is an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, predictors of cardiac structure and function in youth are not completely understood. On 2 occasions (2.3 years apart), we examined 146 youth aged initially 10 to 19 years (mean age, 14.2 ± 1.8 years). On the initial visit, hemodynamic function was assessed at rest, during laboratory stress (ie, orthostasis, car-driving simulation, video game, and forehead cold), and in the field (ie, ambulatory blood pressure). Quantitative M-mode echocardiograms were obtained on both visits. On both visits, black compared with white youth had higher resting laboratory systolic blood pressure (P<0.02), greater relative wall thickness (P<0.003), greater left ventricular mass indexed by either body surface area or height2.7 (P<0.01 for both), and lower midwall fractional shortening ratio (P<0.05). Hierarchical stepwise regression analysis indicated that significant independent predictors of follow-up left ventricular mass/height2.7 were the initial evaluation of left ventricular mass/height2.7, body mass index, gender (males more than females), and supine resting total peripheral resistance (final model R2=0.53). Left ventricular mass/body surface area was predicted by initial left ventricular mass/body surface area, weight, gender, mean supine resting total peripheral resistance, and systolic pressure response to car-driving simulation (final model R2=0.48). Midwall fractional shortening was predicted by initial midwall fractional shortening, race (white more than black), and lower mean supine total peripheral resistance (final model R2=0.13). The clinical significance of these findings and their implications for improved prevention of cardiovascular diseases are yet to be determined.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1026-1031
Number of pages6
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 1999


  • Blood pressure
  • Left ventricular mass
  • Ventricular function
  • Youth

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine


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