Hydrogen sulfide attenuates neurodegeneration and neurovascular dysfunction induced by intracerebral-administered homocysteine in mice

P. K. Kamat, A. Kalani, S. Givvimani, P. B. Sathnur, S. C. Tyagi, N. Tyagi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

110 Scopus citations


High levels of homocysteine (Hcy), known as hyperhomocysteinemia are associated with neurovascular diseases. H2S, a metabolite of Hcy, has potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities; however, the effect of H2S has not been explored in Hcy (IC)-induced neurodegeneration and neurovascular dysfunction in mice. Therefore, the present study was designed to explore the neuroprotective role of H2S on Hcy-induced neurodegeneration and neurovascular dysfunction. To test this hypothesis we employed wild-type (WT) males ages 8-10weeks, WT+artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), WT+Hcy (0.5μmol/μl) intracerebral injection (IC, one time only prior to NaHS treatment), WT+Hcy+NaHS (sodium hydrogen sulfide, precursor of H2S, 30μmol/kg, body weight). NaHS was injected i.p. once daily for the period of 7days after the Hcy (IC) injection. Hcy treatment significantly increased malondialdehyde, nitrite level, acetylcholinestrase activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, glial fibrillary acidic protein, inducible nitric oxide synthase, endothelial nitric oxide synthase and decreased glutathione level indicating oxidative-nitrosative stress and neuroinflammation as compared to control and aCSF-treated groups. Further, increased expression of neuron-specific enolase, S100B and decreased expression of (post-synaptic density-95, synaptosome-associated protein-97) synaptic protein indicated neurodegeneration. Brain sections of Hcy-treated mice showed damage in the cortical area and periventricular cells. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated, dUTP nick-end labeling-positive cells and Fluro Jade-C staining indicated apoptosis and neurodegeneration. The increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) MMP9, MMP2 and decreased expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) TIMP-1, TIMP-2, tight junction proteins (zonula occulden 1) in Hcy-treated group indicate neurovascular remodeling. Interestingly, NaHS treatment significantly attenuated Hcy-induced oxidative stress, memory deficit, neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation and cerebrovascular remodeling. The results indicate that H2S is effective in providing protection against neurodegeneration and neurovascular dysfunction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)302-319
Number of pages18
StatePublished - Nov 12 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Cerebrovascular dysfunction
  • HS
  • Neurodegeneration
  • Neuroinflammation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)


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