In vitro antifungal susceptibility methods and clinical implications of antifungal resistance

A. Espinel-Ingroff, D. W. Warnock, J. A. Vazquez, B. A. Arthington-Skaggs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Scopus citations


As new antifungal agents are introduced for the treatment of infections caused by yeasts and filamentous fungi (moulds), it is important that reliable methods are available for the in vitro testing of both new and established agents. The ultimate goal of in vitro testing is the prediction of the clinical outcome of therapy. The use of the M27-A procedures that were developed by the US National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) has led to increased interlaboratory agreement of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for yeasts and has facilitated the establishment of interpretive breakpoints for fluconazole and itraconazole. The clinical relevance and limitations of these breakpoints are discussed elsewhere. The focus of this paper is to review the advantages and disadvantages of the available methods for antifungal susceptibility testing of yeasts and moulds as well as the clinical implications of in vitro antifungal resistance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)293-304
Number of pages12
JournalMedical Mycology
StatePublished - 2000
Externally publishedYes


  • Antifungal resistance
  • Moulds
  • Susceptibility testing
  • Yeasts

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases


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