Individual and socioeconomic factors associated with childhood immunization coverage in Nigeria

Obinna Oleribe, Vibha Kumar, Adebowale Awosika-Olumo, Simon David Taylor-Robinson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Scopus citations


Introduction: Immunization is the world’s most successful and cost-effective public health intervention as it prevents over 2 million deaths annually. However, over 2 million deaths still occur yearly from Vaccine preventable diseases, the majority of which occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Nigeria is a major contributor of global childhood deaths from VPDs. Till date, Nigeria still has wild polio virus in circulation. The objective of this study was to identify the individual and socioeconomic factors associated with immunization coverage in Nigeria through a secondary dataset analysis of Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS), 2013. Methods: A quantitative analysis of the 2013 NDHS dataset was performed. Ethical approvals were obtained from Walden University IRB and the National Health Research Ethics Committee of Nigeria. The dataset was downloaded, validated for completeness and analyzed using univariate, bivariate and multivariate statistics. Results: Of 27,571 children aged 0 to 59 months, 22.1% had full vaccination, and 29% never received any vaccination. Immunization coverage was significantly associated with childbirth order, delivery place, child number, and presence or absence of a child health card. Maternal age, geographical location, education, religion, literacy, wealth index, marital status, and occupation were significantly associated with immunization coverage. Paternal education, occupation, and age were also significantly associated with coverage. Respondent's age, educational attainment and wealth index remained significantly related to immunization coverage at 95% confidence interval in multivariate analysis. Conclusion: The study highlights child, parental and socioeconomic barriers to successful immunization programs in Nigeria. These findings need urgent attention, given the re-emergence of wild poliovirus in Nigeria. An effective, efficient, sustainable, accessible, and acceptable immunization program for children should be designed, developed and undertaken in Nigeria with adequate strategies put in place to implement them.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number220
JournalPan African Medical Journal
StatePublished - Apr 24 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Immunization
  • Nigeria
  • Nigerian demographic and health survey (NDHS)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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