Lactate-Dependent Regulation of Immune Responses by Dendritic Cells and Macrophages

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43 Scopus citations


For decades, lactate has been considered an innocuous bystander metabolite of cellular metabolism. However, emerging studies show that lactate acts as a complex immunomodulatory molecule that controls innate and adaptive immune cells’ effector functions. Thus, recent advances point to lactate as an essential and novel signaling molecule that shapes innate and adaptive immune responses in the intestine and systemic sites. Here, we review these recent advances in the context of the pleiotropic effects of lactate in regulating diverse functions of immune cells in the tissue microenvironment and under pathological conditions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number691134
JournalFrontiers in immunology
StatePublished - Jul 29 2021


  • GPR81/GPR132
  • antitumor immunity
  • dendritic cells
  • immune response to infections
  • inflammatory diseases
  • lactate signaling
  • macrophages
  • regulatory and inflammatory responses

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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