BACKGROUND: Adult studies have suggested that magnesium intake may regulate C-reactive protein (CRP) and muscle mass, known risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. Given the large deficiencies in magnesium intake in adolescents, we aimed to investigate sex and race differences in dietary magnesium intake and test the hypothesis that lower magnesium intake is associated with higher CRP and lower muscle mass.
METHODS: A total of 766 black and white adolescents, 14 to 18 years old (51% black; 50% female) were previously recruited. Diet was assessed with four to seven independent 24-h recalls. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. High-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP), leptin, resistin, and adiponectin were measured using fasting blood samples by ELISA.
RESULTS: There were sex and race differences in the daily consumption of magnesium. The average daily magnesium intakes were 200.66 ± 7.09 mg and 205.03 ± 7.05 mg for males and females, respectively, far below the recommended amounts of 410 mg for males and 360 mg for females. White subjects (217.95 ± 6.81 mg/day) consumed more than black subjects (187.75 ± 6.92 mg/day). Almost none of the adolescents met the recommendations. Adjusted multiple linear regressions revealed that lower magnesium intake was associated with higher hs-CRP and lower fat-free mass (FFM) ( p-values < 0.05). Higher hs-CRP was associated with lower FFM. Moreover, an interaction between magnesium intake and hs-CRP on FFM was identified ( p-value < 0.05). Lower magnesium intake amplified the inverse relationships between hs-CRP and FFM ( p-values < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Magnesium consumption in our adolescents was far below daily recommended levels with male and black subjects consuming less than female and white subjects. Lower magnesium intake was associated with higher CRP and lower muscle mass. Low magnesium intake may also augment the inverse relationship between CRP and FFM.
- Body Composition
- C-Reactive Protein/metabolism
- Magnesium/administration & dosage
- Muscle, Skeletal/physiology