Adequate levels of androgens (eugonadism), and specifically testosterone, are vital compounds for male quality of life, longevity, and positive health outcomes. Testosterone exerts its effects by binding to the androgen receptor, which is expressed in numerous tissues throughout the body. Significant research has been conducted on the impact of this steroid hormone on skeletal, muscle and adipose tissues and on the cardiovascular, immune, and nervous systems. Testosterone levels have also been studied in relation to the impact of diseases, aging, nutrition and the environment on its circulating levels. Conversely, the impact of testosterone on health has also been evaluated with respect to its cardiac and vascular protective effects, body composition, autoimmunity and all-cause mortality. The male aging process results in decreasing testosterone levels over time. The exact mechanisms and impact of these changes in testosterone levels with age on health- and life-span are still not completely clear. Further research is needed to determine the optimal testosterone and androgen levels to protect from chronic age-related conditions such as frailty and osteoporosis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geriatrics and Gerontology