Management of Pituitary Adenomas Invading the Cavernous Sinus

Martin Rutkowski, Gabriel Zada

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Cavernous sinuses are complex dural venous sinuses that house important neurovascular structures, which often preclude full surgical access for tumor resection. Neuro-imaging and anatomic grading scales have corroborated that more invasive tumors are less likely to undergo gross total resection and biochemical remission. Endoscopic approaches are increasingly favored over microsurgical techniques. Direct transcavernous approaches have yielded even greater degrees of resection. Radiosurgery is a powerful adjuvant therapy for residual, recurrent, and/or inaccessible cavernous sinus disease that provides excellent tumor control rates and favorable risk-benefit ratios for the achievement of biochemical remission with minimal endocrine morbidity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)445-455
Number of pages11
JournalNeurosurgery Clinics of North America
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Cavernous sinus
  • Endoscope
  • Invasion
  • Knosp
  • Pituitary adenomas
  • Radiosurgery
  • Surgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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