Molecular Oncology of Bladder Cancer from Inception to Modern Perspective

Soum D. Lokeshwar, Maite Lopez, Semih Sarcan, Karina Aguilar, Daley S. Morera, Devin M. Shaheen, Bal L. Lokeshwar, Vinata B. Lokeshwar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Within the last forty years, seminal contributions have been made in the areas of bladder cancer (BC) biology, driver genes, molecular profiling, biomarkers, and therapeutic targets for improving personalized patient care. This overview includes seminal discoveries and advances in the molecular oncology of BC. Starting with the concept of divergent molecular pathways for the development of low-and high-grade bladder tumors, field cancerization versus clonality of bladder tumors, cancer driver genes/mutations, genetic polymorphisms, and bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) as an early form of immunotherapy are some of the conceptual contributions towards improving patient care. Although beginning with a promise of predicting prognosis and individualizing treatments, “-omic” approaches and molecular subtypes have revealed the importance of BC stem cells, lineage plasticity, and intra-tumor heterogeneity as the next frontiers for realizing individualized patient care. Along with urine as the optimal non-invasive liquid biopsy, BC is at the forefront of the biomarker field. If the goal is to reduce the number of cystoscopies but not to replace them for monitoring recurrence and asymptomatic microscopic hematuria, a BC marker may reach clinical acceptance. As advances in the molecular oncology of BC continue, the next twenty-five years should significantly advance personalized care for BC patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2578
Issue number11
StatePublished - Jun 1 2022


  • bladder cancer stem cells
  • genomic/transcriptomic profiling
  • intra-tumor heterogeneity
  • lineage plasticity
  • molecular oncology
  • molecular subtypes
  • prognostic markers
  • urine biomarkers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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