Nanoleakage within the hybrid layer: A correlative FEISEM/TEM investigation

Pietro Suppa, Lorenzo Breschi, Alessandra Ruggeri, Giovanni Mazzotti, Carlo Prati, Stefane Chersoni, Roberte Di Lenarda, David H. Pashley, Franklin R. Tay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

63 Scopus citations


The aim of this study was to compare the nanoleakage patterns of the resin-dentin interfaces of three dentin bonding systems at both TEM and field emission in lens SEM (FEI-SEM) levels. A standardized smear layer was created with 180-grit silicon carbide paper (SiC) on dentin disks obtained from 18 noncarious human third molars. Specimens were randomly divided into three groups and bonded with a two-step total etching adhesive (Single Bond, SB), a two-step, self-etching adhesive (Clearfil SE BOND, SEB), and a one-step, self-etching adhesive (XENO III, XEIII). Nanoleakage was evaluated by using an ammoniacal silver-nitrate solution. Specimens were processed for TEM and FEI-SEM observation. The TEM of SB revealed silver deposits in adhesive and hybrid layers (HL). High-magnification FEI-SEM micrographs clearly identified these deposits as spherical clusters mainly associated with nonembedded collagen fibrils. TEM and FEI-SEM examination of SEB revealed some clusters of silver deposits within porosities and small channels of the HL. Additional silver deposits were observed between the peritubular dentin walls and the resin tags. XEIII revealed very fine and diffuse silver grains throughout the entire HL. SEM visualization of nanoleakage at a high level of resolution has not been previously described. FEI-SEM technology supported the TEM visualization with three-dimensional morphological data of the relations between the HL constituents and nanoleakage. The results of the present study confirm the hypothesis that both total- and self-etch adhesives are not able to fully infiltrate the dentin substrate.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)7-14
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part B Applied Biomaterials
Issue number1
StatePublished - Apr 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Dentin moisture
  • Hybrid layer
  • Nanoleakage
  • TEM

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering


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