On the biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease

Timon Cheng Yi Liu, Tao Zheng, Rui Duan, Ling Zhu, Quan Guang Zhang

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

6 Scopus citations


Nakamura et al. examined the evidence, using a discovery and a validation database, that amyloid-β precursor protein (APP)669–711/amyloid-β (Aβ)1–42 and Aβ1–40/Aβ1–42 ratios, and composites based on traditional statistics; they concluded that these may be useful as biomarkers of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). We reexamined the same datasets, each of which included cognitively normal individuals (CN), individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and individuals with AD. We used fractal self-similar analyses and reexamined their data from (1) the Japanese National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology (NCGG) (discovery database) and (2) the Australian Imaging, Biomarker and Lifestyle Study of Ageing (AIBL) cohort (validation database). Results: Using our methods, the three groups of individuals were found to be self-similar, i.e., they could not be differentiated quantitatively, in contrast to the findings of Nakamura et al. Conclusion: Appropriate biomarkers need further study. Our results suggest that APP669–711/Aβ1–42 and Aβ1–40/Aβ1–42 ratios and their composites may not be valid biomarkers of AD, when reexamined using fractal methods for comparing biomarkers across populations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Number of pages6
StatePublished - 2020
Externally publishedYes

Publication series

NameAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
ISSN (Print)0065-2598
ISSN (Electronic)2214-8019


  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Biomarker
  • Homeostasis
  • Self-similarity
  • Topology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)


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