Protein-repelling adhesive resin containing calcium phosphate nanoparticles with repeated ion-recharge and re-releases

Faisal D. al-Qarni, Franklin Chi Meng Tay, Michael D. Weir, Mary A.S. Melo, Jirun Sun, Thomas W. Oates, Xianju Xie, Hockin H.K. Xu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


Objectives: The objectives were to develop a calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) ion-rechargeable and protein-repellent adhesive containing nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) and 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), and investigate the MPC effects on ion recharge and re-releases for the first time. Methods: Pyromellitic glycerol dimethacrylate and ethoxylated bisphenol-A dimethacrylate were used to fabricate adhesive PEHB. Six adhesives were tested: (1) Scotchbond (SBMP); (2) PEHB, (3) PEHB + 20%NACP; (4) PEHB + 30%NACP; (5) PEHB + 20%NACP+3%MPC; (6) PEHB + 30%NACP+3%MPC. Dentin shear bond strength, Ca/P ion release, recharge and re-release, and protein adsorption were measured. A microcosm biofilm model was tested for lactic-acid production and colony-forming units (CFU). Results: Adding NACP + MPC did not negatively affect dentin bond strength (p > 0.1). With increasing the number of recharge/re-release cycles, the Ca/P ion re-release reached similarly higher levels (p > 0.1), indicating long-term remineralization capability. One recharge enabled the adhesives to have continued re-releases for 21 days. Incorporation of 3% MPC yielded 10-fold decrease in protein adsorption, and 1–2 log decrease in biofilm CFU. Conclusions: The new rechargeable adhesive with MPC + 30%NACP greatly reduced protein adsorption, biofilm growth and lactic acid. Incorporation of MPC did not compromise the excellent Ca/P ion release, rechargeability, and dentin bond strength. Clinical significance: Novel bioactive adhesive containing MPC + NACP is promising to repel proteins and bacteria, and inhibit secondary caries at the restoration margins. The method of NACP + MPC to combine CaP-recharge and protein-repellency is applicable to the development of a new generation of materials including composites and cements to suppress oral biofilms and plaque formation and protect tooth structures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)91-99
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Dentistry
StatePublished - Nov 2018


  • Calcium phosphate nanoparticles
  • Dental adhesive
  • Dentin bonding
  • Ion recharge
  • Protein adsorption
  • Secondary caries

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)


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