The factors which contribute to bias due to differential recall between cases and controls in retrospective studies have been little studied. A review of the literature on recall accuracy suggests that the extent of inaccurate recall is related to characteristics of the exposure of interest and of the respondents, though a distinction must be drawn between recall which is biased and that which is simply inaccurate. Interviewing technique and the study protocol, including the design of questionnaires and the motivation of respondents, play a central role and are under the control of the investigator. The results of validation studies carried out to date suggest that the likelihood of recall bias may be greater when recall is poor in general.
- Study design
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